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Many ideas have been proposed to explain the origin of bipedalism in hominins and suspension in great apes hominids ; however, fossil evidence has been lacking. It has been suggested that bipedalism in hominins evolved from an ancestor that was a palmigrade quadruped which would have moved similarly to living monkeys , or from a more suspensory quadruped most similar to extant chimpanzees 1.

The With a broad thorax, long lumbar spine and extended hips and knees, as in bipeds, and elongated and fully extended forelimbs, as in all apes hominoids , Danuvius combines the adaptations of bipeds and suspensory apes, and provides a model for the common ancestor of great apes and humans. The computed tomography scans are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Begun, D. Knuckle-walking in Sivapithecus? The combined effects of homology and homoplasy with possible implications for pongine dispersals.

Richmond, B.

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Origin of human bipedalism: the knuckle-walking hypothesis revisited. Crompton, R. Arboreality, terrestriality and bipedalism. B , — Dryopithecins, Darwin, de Bonis, and the European origin of the African apes and human clade. Geodiversitas 31 , — European Miocene hominids and the origin of the African ape and human clade. Alba, D. Langergraber, K. Generation times in wild chimpanzees and gorillas suggest earlier divergence times in great ape and human evolution.

Natl Acad. USA , — A Dryopithecus skeleton and the origins of great-ape locomotion. Nature , — Pierolapithecus catalaunicus , a new Middle Miocene great ape from Spain. Science , — A partial skeleton of the fossil great ape Hispanopithecus laietanus from Can Feu and the mosaic evolution of crown-hominoid positional behaviors. Lovejoy, C. The great divides: Ardipithecus ramidus reveals the postcrania of our last common ancestors with African apes.

Science , 73— White, T. Neither chimpanzee nor human, Ardipithecus reveals the surprising ancestry of both. Kirscher, U. A biochronologic tie-point for the base of the Tortonian stage in European terrestrial settings: magnetostratigraphy of the topmost Upper Freshwater Molasse sediments of the North Alpine Foreland Basin in Bavaria Germany. Williams, S. Evolution of the hominoid vertebral column: the long and the short of it. Latimer, B.

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Vertebral numbers and human evolution. Haeusler, M. Modern or distinct axial bauplan in early hominins?


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A reply to Williams Nakatsukasa, M. Nacholapithecus and its importance for understanding hominoid evolution. Pilbeam, D. The anthropoid postcranial axial skeleton: comments on development, variation, and evolution. Ward, C. Partial skeleton of Proconsul nyanzae from Mfangano island, Kenya. Thoracic vertebral count and thoracolumbar transition in Australopithecus afarensis.

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Placement of the diaphragmatic vertebra in catarrhines: implications for the evolution of dorsostability in hominoids and bipedalism in hominins. A late Miocene hominid partial pelvis from Hungary. McCollum, M. The vertebral formula of the last common ancestor of African apes and humans. Spinopelvic pathways to bipedality: why no hominids ever relied on a bent-hip—bent-knee gait. Landis, E. A three-dimensional analysis of the geometry and curvature of the proximal tibial articular surface of hominoids. In Proc.

Frelat, M. Evolution of the hominin knee and ankle. Tardieu, C. Ontogeny and phylogeny of femoro-tibial characters in humans and hominid fossils: functional influence and genetic determinism. DeSilva, J. Functional morphology of the ankle and the likelihood of climbing in early hominins. A hominoid distal tibia from the Miocene of Pakistan. Talocrural joint in African hominoids: implications for Australopithecus afarensis. Thorpe, S. Origin of human bipedalism as an adaptation for locomotion on flexible branches. The arboreal origins of human bipedalism. Antiquity 88 , — Wolpoff, M.

Australopithecus : a new look at an old ancestor part 2. Straus, W. Washburn, S. Asfaw, B. Australopithecus garhi : a new species of early hominid from Ethiopia. Ruff, C. Long bone articular and diaphyseal structure in Old World monkeys and apes. II: estimation of body mass. Haile-Selassie, Y. An early Australopithecus afarensis postcranium from Woranso-Mille, Ethiopia. PhD thesis, Univ.

Michigan, Behrensmeyer, A. The taphonomy and paleoecology of Plio-Pleistocene vertebrate assemblages east of Lake Rodolf, Kenya. The femur of Orrorin tugenensis exhibits morphometric affinities with both Miocene apes and later hominins. Smith, B. Patterns of molar wear in hunger-gatherers and agriculturalists.

Smith, T. Variation in hominoid molar enamel thickness.

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Martin, L. When the user taps the image of a product, a new screen displays details about the product. In Android, a route is equivalent to an Activity. In iOS, a route is equivalent to a ViewController. In Flutter, a route is just a widget. Navigate to a new route using the Navigator. This recipe uses the following steps:. First, create two routes to work with. Since this is a basic example, each route contains only a single button. Tapping the button on the first route navigates to the second route. Tapping the button on the second route returns to the first route.

To switch to a new route, use the Navigator. The push method adds a Route to the stack of routes managed by the Navigator.

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Where does the Route come from? You can create your own, or use a MaterialPageRoute , which is useful because it transitions to the new route using a platform-specific animation. In the build method of the FirstRoute widget, update the onPressed callback:.